Tuesday, January 04, 2011

Kaulins and Ancient Greek Terms

Kaulins and Ancient Greek Terms

The source

Henry George Liddell & Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. and augm. throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940, online at Perseus 4.0 (aka Perseus Hopper), Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University,  Gregory R. Crane, Editor-in-Chief, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dpe%2Flekus


a Greek Dictionary Headword Search, by which a search e.g. for the root of the surname Kaulins can be made in Ancient Greek.

Entering "kaul" gives the following results, showing how this tool can be used for research:
καυλεῖον LSJ 0 0 [unavailable] καυλέω LSJ 30 0 form a stalk καυληδόν LSJ 0 0 like a stalk καυλίας LSJ 0 0 extracted from a stalk καυλικός LSJ 0 0 like a stalk, cauline καυλίνης LSJ 0 0 a kind of καύλινος LSJ, Middle Liddell 0 0 made of a stalk καυλίον LSJ 0 0 sea-weed καυλίσκος LSJ 1 1 branch of a candlestick καυλίζομαι LSJ 0 0 have a shaft καυλοειδής LSJ 0 0 like a stem καυλοφορέω LSJ 0 0 run to stalk καυλοκινάρα LSJ 0 0 artichoke stem, καυλοκλυστήρ LSJ 0 0 [unavailable] καυλοκοπία LSJ 0 0 cutting of stalks καυλομύκητες LSJ, Middle Liddell 0 0 stalk-fungi καυλοπώλης LSJ 0 0 greengrocer καυλός LSJ, Middle Liddell, Autenrieth 63 33 spear-shaft καυλώδης LSJ 0 0 running to stem καυλωτός LSJ 0 0 with a stalk
The most frequent term is:
καυλός , o(,
A. stem of a plant (opp. στέλεχος, of trees, Thphr.HP1.1.9), Epich.158, Ar.Eq.824 (anap.); κ. σιλφίου ib.894; σίλφιον ὀπὸς κ.Hp.Acut.37; called “ἐκ Κυρήνης κ.Hermipp.63.4; “κ. ἐκ ΚαρχηδόνοςEub.19; “κ. ΛίβυςAntiph.217.13, cf. 325; “κράμβηςBGU1118.12 (pl., i B.C.), cf. Dsc.2.120, Archig. ap. Gal.13.331.
3. of various tubular structures in animals, πτεροῦ καυλός quill part of a feather, Pl.Phdr.251b, cf. Arist. HA504a31; neck of the bladder, ib.497a20; duct of the penis, ib. 510a26; cervix uteri, ib.510b11; ovipositor of locusts, ib.555b21.
4. shank of a fish-hook, Opp.H.3.148.
II. vegetable of the cabbage kind, cole, kail, cauliflower, Alex.127.5, Anaxandr.41.58 (pl.), Eub.7.3 (pl.).
III. membrum virile, Hp.Int.14, D.S.32.11, Gal.UP14.12, Ruf.Onom.101, etc. (Cf. Lat.caulus, caulis, Lith. kaáulas 'bone'.)
Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by. Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940. The National Science Foundation provided support for entering this text.

Thursday, November 11, 2010

The Root KAU in KAULINS on the Basis of Bantu Evidence Might Be an Ancient Term for Man Generally

In the posting below, crossposted from Lingwhizt, one can read that KAU is a Bantu term for "Young Man" and that KU meant "man", so that we need not wonder in Latvian that KUNGS means "Sir, Mr." and KUNDZE "Lady, Mrs.".
We are simply dealing in the case of Latvian with a very old stratum of human language.

Hence, KAU could be the root term for the origin of the name KAULINS, especially when one looks at the Bantu terms for a human clan: e.g Kolo in the Asu language of Bantu, koa in the Bamba language of Bantu and xolo in the Bukusu language of Bantu. The Rumanyo variant koro shows the L and R shift while the Yao kósjò is very much like the Yao word kòòsè for "all". Basically, even the English term clan is not that far from these Bantu words, i.e. we might humorously say the clan is the same term as Kaulini "the Kaulinses".

In any case, the name Kaulins will be very old.

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

Immigrant Ships - SS Castel Bianco

In the wake of World War II, much of the Latvian intelligentsia was scattered throughout the world.

The website at Immigrant Ships, Transcribers Guild contains a passenger list of the International Refugee Organisation Group Resettlement to Australia for the ship SS Castel Bianco:
"SS Castel Bianco
Departure Port: Naples, Italy
Departure Date: 5 July 1949
Arrival Port: Sydney - Australia
Arrival Date: 3 August 1949

Columns represent: Sequence number, surname, forename....

140 EVELE Arvids (my father's friend and business partner)
141 EVELE Emma (my father's youngest sister, born Kaulins)
142 EVELE Mudite (my first cousin)
143 EVELE Reinis (my first cousin)
259 KAULINS Emma (my grandmother on my father's side, born Pakule, sister first cousin of the famous Latvian opera soprano at the Riga Opera, Elfrida Pakule)

....Transcribed by Tom Stiglmayer and Donated to the Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild
It is believed that this transcription only lists those who disembarked
in Fremantle,
since the ship carried hundreds more passengers.
The source was most likely the records in the National Archives
of Australia's Perth collection....

Formatted by  Julie A Schmiedlin Edwards
a member of the Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild 22 October 2002"

Latvian Tenor Israel Feigelson Sings Verdi's La Traviata with Riga Opera Soprano Elfrida Pakule (1956), sister of Emma Pakule, later Emma Kaulins

YouTube - TENOR ISRAEL FEIGELSON SINGS VERDI (uploaded to YouTube by fenterp)

Latvian tenor Israel Feigelson (1921-1991) in live excerpts from Verdi's "La Traviata" with Elfrida Pakule (6 February 1912 -- 31 December 1991), in 1956 singer and soloist of the Latvian Opera in Riga (coloratura soprano), plus a recital performance of the Count's Song from "Rigoletto" in 1977.

Elfrida Pakule was a sister first cousin of Emma Pakule, later Emma Kaulins, grandmother of Andis Kaulins, the owner of this blog.

Friday, March 12, 2010

Geni - The Coming Superstar Under the Family Ancestry Genealogy Websites

In our opinion the popularly designed Geni at Geni.com - free for up to 500 people on the family tree - is the coming superstar under the family ancestry genealogy websites. The design of the website is very intuitive for adding not only new members to family trees but also the requisite information about them - lots of good discussion of Geni and competing sites at I Dream of Genea(logy). Moreover, the home page that Geni provides for users utilizes some of the simple design principles that have made social media websites so successful.

Monday, May 04, 2009

Cik Kauliņi Latvijā? How Many Kaulins (Kauliņš) are there in Latvia? Only 49 Listed Telephone Numbers in All of Latvia

How many Kaulins (Kauliņš) are there in Latvia? Were the Kaulins originally Livonian Livs, i.e. close relatives of the Estonians and Finns? Have they been almost completely assimilated in Latvia? My father, Arvīds Kauliņš, once said that his grandfather still spoke Livonian. Here is a sound probe of the language at Tulli Lum although the Liv language is nearly extinct.

If the root kaul- in Kaulins (Kauliņš) is related to Finno-Ugric kal-, then it originally meant that the Kaulins clan were ancient fishermen because Finno-Ugric *kala means "fish" whence Latvian gaļa "meat"?:
The Estonian word for fisherman is kalur
The Finnish word for fisherman is kalastaja
The Livonian word for fishermen is kalamie and it also means "Livonians"

Simon Hamilton has the following definitions in his dictionary of Estonian "street names":

"Kalamaja (Kalamaja): Fisherman's hut. Kalamehe (Kalamees): Fisherman, angler. Kalaranna (Kalarand): Fishing-beach. Kalasadama (Kalasadam): Fish harbour, fish port. Kalavälja (Kalaväli): Fishfield? Perhaps a place where fish were laid out to dry.... Kalevala (Kalevala): Finnish epic compiled by Elias Lönnrot in the 19th century, sharing several features with (or lending to) Estonia's Kalevipoeg. The "Kalev" part of the name (lit. "fishing") seems clearly related to the proto Finno-Ugric *kala, fish (. Estonian & Finnish kala, Hungarian hal, Sami guöllé) and even Altaic (Tungusic: kul, salmon; Khalka Mongolian: xalim, whale). Clearly a very old word. Kalevi (Kalev): Estonia's epic hero of uncertain identity, the same name being used to describe the man and his son. Kalev stories pre-date the separation of Finns and Estonians.... Kalevipoja (Kalevipoeg): Title and eponymous hero of Kreutzwald's (see Kreutzwaldi) mammoth poem, said by many to trigger the sense of (Romantic) nationalism in Estonia, by others vice versa.... Kaluri (Kalur): Fisherman."

Did the Kaulins clan make up the original inhabitants of Livonia? for example at Zvejnieki?

Here is a map of the location of the various Baltic peoples ca. 1200 A.D.

Map from Wikipedia

The Latvian website 1188.lv was able to find only 49 listed telephone numbers with the surname Kauliņš in all of the telephone books of Latvia. (There are also telephone numbers for the surname Kauliņa, as the female surname is permutated (changed) in the ending in Latvian language, but there is no way to know whether these names were obtained by birth or acquired, so we do not include them here in our analysis.)

The map distribution of the telephone numbers is shown in the graphic above (my creation), clearly evidencing that the greatest number of Kaulins live in Riga (Latvian Rīga), the capital city of Latvia. That same map suggests two central rural locations of the Kaulins clan in Latvia - one in Vidzeme (Livonia) and the the other in Kurzeme (Courland).

If the telephone numbers approximately reflect the traditional locations of the Kaulins clan in Latvia, then the specific distribution of the surname Kaulins (Latvian Kauliņš) in Vidzeme suggests that one path of ancient migration into Latvia might have been from the Latvian coast near the present Estonian border on the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, going inward along the Salaca River (Estonian Salatsi) to Lake Burtnieks (Burtnieku Ezers, Burtnieks, Burtnieki) and from there to the Gauja (i.e. the Gauja River, pronounced "gow-ya", now part of the Gauja National Park), with the most eastwardly projecting Kaulins group then having migrated along the Gauja as far as the area of Lejasciems and Gulbene, where migration stopped. The Livs called the Gauja "Bērzupe" (Birch River).

There are Kaulins surnames along this entire river path, from Salacgrīva at the mouth of the Salaca to Lake Burtnieks (Burtnieku Ezers), then to the Gauja River and from there to Lejasciems (German Aahof, Liv Alakula, Russian Leisk). There is still a village called Alaküla in Estonia today not far from the Latvian border near Gaujiena.

I believe that the Lejasciems area in some ancient era was a ceremonial burial ground of the Livs - which accounts for the numerous ancient cemetaries clustered closely in this region. Compare the Liv name Alakula for Lejasciems with the Latvian term līķis "corpse". According to our research, Lejasciems in the ancient megalithic survey map of Latvia may have marked Lyra (Vega) on the hermetic planisphere - for Lyra is the traditional heavenly "box" with this function, for which reason the nearby city is named Gulbene (from Latvian gulbis "the swan") for the nearby constellation of Cygnus, which still today is the symbol of Gulbene. The Estonian word for corpse is koolnu - and Kulna is the Estonian name for Gulbene.

This area is also marked by megalithic border stones at Paideri near Lejasciems (Paideru Dižakmens), then a few miles up the road from there at a location between Sinole and Velena (Robežkalnu laukakmens) and in Daukstu Pagasts near Galgauskas, not far from Lejasciems (Rožkalnu Raganas Akmens). Velena (the name comes from the grass turf used to cover graves) is just up the road from Lejasciems and is the site of one of Latvia's most beautiful churches, built in red rapakivi granite (also known as "Baltic brown"), a fairly rare and unusual building material, found also in the churches of the Åland Islands between Sweden and Finnland.

Velena Church
Photograph by Gatis Pāvils linked from Ambermarks.com

The modern church of Velena, pictured above in a photo by Gatis Pāvils linked from Ambermarks.com, is built on a church site which over the years previously had five other churches built on it.

Our theory of Liv migration into Latvia via the Salaca is supported by the discoveries made at the extensive Stone Age cemetery at Zvejnieki, documented at Zvejnieki, Northern Latvia: Stone Age Cemetery (British Archaeological Reports International Series) by Francis Zagorskis, translated bz Valdis Bērziņš:
"Dr. Francis Zagorskis spent almost 20 years studying the Stone Age cemetery of Zvejnieki on the shore of Lake Burtnieki in northern Latvia. In this translation, Zagorskis' text has been left unaltered, since the opinions expressed by the author, including his views on the chronology, have retained their validity in the light of subsequent studies."
Zvejnieki has been described in an article by Gunilla Eriksson, Lembi Lõugas and Ilga Zagorska in the Abstract to their article, Stone Age hunter–fisher–gatherers at Zvejnieki, northern Latvia: radiocarbon, stable isotope and archaeozoology data, where they write:
"The Zvejnieki Stone Age1 complex in northern Latvia includes one of the most significant hunter–fisher–gatherer cemeteries in northern Europe in terms of both the exceptional number of individuals buried there and the extremely long period of use: more than 300 individuals interred over a period of at least four millennia. New results of archaeozoological studies and palaeodiet investigations performed on the Zvejnieki human remains are presented here, together with 18 new radiocarbon dates. It is clear from the stable isotope analyses that the Zvejnieki people were heavily reliant on freshwater fish until the end of the Early Neolithic, when the consumption of fish declined somewhat, although it still made an important contribution to the diet. The Late Neolithic individuals in Corded Ware flexed burials at Zvejnieki and elsewhere in Latvia show a distinct dietary pattern, pointing towards animal husbandry. The faunal remains found in settlement layers confirm the trends revealed by bone chemistry, whereas the archaeozoological analyses of faunal remains in graves, mostly in the form of tooth pendants, show a different picture, emphasising the importance of big game hunting. This illustrates the discrepancy between the symbolic world, as expressed by burial customs, and everyday life, as revealed by stable isotope data and refuse layers."
As written at Oxbow Books:
"Zvejnieki (Northern Latvia) - Stone Age Cemetery
by Francis Zagorskis

The late Mesolithic and Neolithic cemetery of Zvejnieki on the shore of Lake Burtnieki, northern Latvia, is unique. More than 300 burials have been found, spanning over three millennia. The skeletal evidence, supported by the numerous grave goods (both tools and ornaments) provides invaluable evidence for the 'anthropological types of the Mesolithic tribes and their origins' as well as a 'better insight into the processes of interaction between Neolithic tribes' over a very long period of time. The study, which includes illustrated catalogues of burials and finds, was first published in Latvia in 1987 (a year after the author's death) but is now available in English for the first time. 147p, b/w illus (Archaeopress BAR S1292, 2004)"
As written at The Baltic Assembly:
"In the present territory of Latvia, the Stone Age lasted until the 2nd millennium B.C. At about 14,000 B.C. the glaciers began to recede, and the climate improved. In the 9th millennium B.C., the first inhabitants from the south arrived in the territory of present-day Latvia. They made their living by hunting and fishing. The people lived in clans and equally distributed the property they held in common. The Neolithic Era or the Late Stone Age lasted from the 4th to the 2nd millennium B.C. The number of inhabitants grew; the settlements expanded. The people gathered wild plants, and the ceramic pottery appeared in the form of clay pots and bowls.

In the 3rd and 2nd millennium B.C. the ancestors of the Baltic Finns and Balts arrived in the present territory of Latvia. The ancestors of Baltic Finns (also Livonians) arrived also from the east, and their main occupation was fishing. The ancestors of the Balts arrived also from the south and southeast. When the Metal Era began in the 2nd millennium B.C., there were already evidences of cattle breeding and agriculture in the territory of Latvia. At that time, bronze tools were introduced. Matriarchy was replaced by patriarchy because cattle breeding was mainly a man’s occupation."
Burtnieku Ezers means literally "Lake of the Letterers" and it is known that the ancient apiarists (beekeepers, honey farmers) in this region used to mark their trees with symbols of possession, a practice confirmed in the Russian term "bortņiki". One should recall that among the ancient Pharaohs as relates to the origins of writing that "[t]he rulers of Lower Egypt wore the red crown and had the bee as their symbol." (See related apiary information historically at Tel Rehov and BirdChick).

The distribution of Kaulins surnames in Courland, on the other hand, suggests a more recent dispersion of the Kaulins surname from the north and/or from Riga to the west and south. Many more rural inhabitants of Latvia, in previous centuries, then as now, went to Riga to find work and then settled in its environs. My own father is a good example, having to leave Lejasciems early in his life after the death of his father in order to work in Riga to help support his mother and six sisters.

Based on Latvian telephone numbers, and grouped by regions, the locations of people in Latvia with the surname Kaulins are as follows, starting in the west of Latvia and moving eastward:

Locations of the surname KAULINS in Latvia
by telephone numbers in pagasti (counties, parishes)

Please note: Links to points of interest or general websites have been added to cities and counties (parishes) to make things more interesting, and for our own use, we have added hotels, businesses, etc. which appeared to us to be of interest for our own possible future use. They have no relation to the Kaulins listed as having telephone numbers in those cities, pagasti, novadi or lauku.

Please note also : We translate Latvian pagasts - the smallest administrative unit in Latvia - either directly as "pagasts" (plural pagasti) or as "county". Some people translate pagasts as "parish". The term parish originated in the United Kingdom to apply to the smallest unit of the Anglican Church and has a historical religious significance in the U.K. which is not fully portable in meaning to the civil pagasts in Latvia and that is why I prefer the neutral term county. The term parish is also sometimes used in the sense of a subdivision of a county.

Arturs Zageris writes:

"The division most important to the people was pagasts. Some translate it parish, I will call it pagasts. There are about 500 pagasti in Latvia. The median pagasts is about 27,500 acres in size and has about 1,150 people. [The mean is 30,500 and 1,500].". As written at AskDefine.com: "In Latvia, a rural municipality (sing.:novads, plur.:novadi) is part of a district (sing.:rajons, plur.:rajoni). A rural municipality normally consists of amalgated parishes (sing.:pagasts, plur.:pagasti). An urban municipality is called rajons."

LIEPAJA (Latvian Liepāja) in Courland is Latvia's 3rd largest city and an important ice-free port in the winter, located in the southwest corner of Latvia on the Baltic Sea.

As the Wikipedia writes: "The original settlement in the place of modern Liepāja was founded by Curonian fishermen...." There are two Kaulins who have telephone numbers in Liepāja:
COURLAND, KURLAND (Latvian Kurzeme)
- from the western coast of Courland toward Riga
RIGA AND ENVIRONS (links are to diverse websites about Riga) (see also the virtual tour of Old Riga at riga.lv - click the yellow balls for views and panorama)
  • Kauliņš, Aivars - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Andris - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Atis - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Eduards - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Jānis - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Jānis - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Jānis - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Juris - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Teodors - Rīga
  • Kauliņš, Zigurds - Rīga
(Riga environs)
Kauliņš, Viktors - Sakstagala pagasts


Kauliņš, Jānis - Ilūkste
Kauliņš, Andris - Daugavpils

There are very few Kaulins in Latgale (Latgalia) or Zemgale (Semigalia, including Selonia), and those few families were surely relocated from other areas to work in the railroad and industrial cities of Rēzekne and Daugavpils.

A major railroad was put through Rezekne (Latvian Rēzekne), drawing inhabitants from elsewhere:

"Initially, Režica was the part of Pskov province; in 1777 - the part of Polocka province, but in 1802 - one of the centers of Vitebsk province. Rezekne boomed in its development in 1836, when the road St. Petersburg - Warsaw was built. The railway St. Petersburg - Warsaw was constructed in 1860 but line Ventspils-Ribinska was built in 1904."

The Wikipedia writes:

"A Latgalian hill fort is known to have existed at Rēzekne from the 9th to the 13th centuries, until its destruction at the hands of German crusaders of the Livonian Order. In 1285, the knights built a stone fortress on the site, which is today known as Rezekne castle ruins, to serve as a border post on their eastern frontier....

In the 19th century, the population of Rēzekne was 2/3 Jewish.... The remainder of the population included Poles, Germans, Russians, and an extreme minority of native Latgalians. With the economic development and the arrival of the railroad, the population grew steadily....

Daugavpils is the 2nd largest city in Latvia. Daugavpils is a city of heavy industry, today populated to a majority by Russians (ca. 54%), with 15% Poles, 8% Belarusians and only 17% Latvians.

Sunday, May 03, 2009

Edgars Kauliņš (1903-1979) and Lielvārde : For His Valor the Most Famous Kolkhoz Director in Latvia During the Period of Soviet Occupation

Taken from the Wikipedia article on Lielvārde:

"Lielvārde ... population 6328, is a town and rural district in Vidzeme, Latvia, on the right bank of the Daugava river, 52 km southeast of Riga.

The area was a contact zone between the Finnic Livonians and the Balts, and many prehistoric artifacts have been uncovered there. A Baltic hill-fort named Lennewarden being taken in fief by Albert of Buxhoeveden in 1201 is mentioned in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. This site is called Dievukalns (Hill of the Gods) in Latvian. A stone castle was constructed by the Riga diocese in 1229; its ruins are still accessible today.

A parochial school was established when the area was part of Swedish Livonia, but ca. 70% of the population perished in the Great Plague of 1710. The opening of the Riga-Daugavpils railroad in 1861 led to the expansion of the town around the railway station Rembate. The town was entirely destroyed in World War I but was swiftly rebuilt after Latvia achieved independence.

After the occupation of Latvia and its incorporation into the Soviet Union as the Latvian SSR, Edgars Kauliņš (1903-1979), the local Communist Party secretary, was able to save all of the farmers in the district from deportation during the period of forced collectivization, declaring that there were no kulaks in the area and he would rather be deported himself.

In 1948 Kauliņš became the founding chairman of the kolkhoz Lāčplēsis ("The Bear Slayer"), now part of Lielvārde. The kolkhoz became famous for its beer, still brewed in Lielvārde by AS Lāčplēša alus, part of the Scandinavian Royal Unibrew brewing group since 2005.

Lielvārde air base was built by the Soviets in 1970; the largest in the Baltic States, it was taken over by the Latvian Air Force in 1994.

Lielvārde is renowned as the area that inspired the prominent Latvian poets Auseklis and Andrejs Pumpurs, author of the epic Lāčplēsis (The Bear Slayer, 1888), and for the Lielvārdes josta, a traditional woven belt with 22 ancient symbols. Portions of the belt's design are featured on Latvian banknotes, and its symbolism has inspired many artists and folklore enthusiasts, especially those associated with the pagan revival, dievturība."

Saturday, May 02, 2009

Jānis Kauliņš - Minister of the Interior, Minister of Agriculture, and Head of the Land Bank of Latvia in the 1930's

Jānis Kauliņš (Kaulins), born July 10, 1889, died April 30, 1942, was Minister of the Interior of Latvia from December 6, 1931 to March 23, 1933, Minister of Agriculture 1934-1935 and head of the Land Bank of Latvia from 1935 until 1938. In the photograph below (from Latvijas Akadēmiskā bibliotēka un Rakstniecības, teātra un mūzikas muzejs) he is the fourth from the left in the back row.

1935 Latvian Cabinet of Ministers from the left.
First Row: 1. Vilis Gulbis, 2. Kārlis Ulmanis, 3. Alberts Kviesis, 4. Jānis Balodis, 5. Marģers Skujenieks.
Second Row: 1. Dāvids Rudzītis, 2. Ludvigs Adamovičs, 3. Jāzeps Čamanis, 4. Jānis Kauliņš, 5. Bernhards Einbergs, 6. Vladislavs Rubulis, 7. Hermanis Apsītis, 8. Jānis Birznieks, 9. Ludvigs Ēķis, 10. Alfrēds Bērziņš.
1935. gads, Rīga. Fotogrāfs: Eduards Rihards Kraucs. 11,7x17,5 cm.
Inventāra Nr.: LABR R32401-14-03.
Topogrāfija/Šifrs: Iz258-14-03.

Jānis Kauliņš had been decorated for his valor as a young man in World War I, having saved the life of then Minister of Defense of Latvia Jānis Zālītis. But such valor was of no use to Russia in World War II in the persons of the deposed Latvian government.

As written at the Wikipedia at the History of Latvia:

"During the night from the 13th/14th June, 1941, 15,424 inhabitants of Latvia — including 1,771 Jews and 742 ethnic Russians — were deported to camps and special settlements, mostly in Siberia. 35,000 people were deported in the first year of Soviet occupation (131,500 across the Baltics)."

Jānis Kauliņš was arrested by the Russians on June 16, 1941, deported to Novosibirsk - separately from his wife and three children, who were also deported to Siberia. In Novosibirsk he was sentenced to death on December 25, 1941 (KPFSR KK 58-4) and shot on April 30, 1942.

See the Latvian text of his appeal (translated from the Russian) from his death sentence - issued by the Russians against him because he had been the Minister of the Interior of Latvia and had thus been by government position contra to the Soviets. In the appeal Kauliņš - to no avail - pointed out that the penalty was greatly out of proportion to any purported crime committed - but he was shot anyway.

The Kaulins Private Library in Gulbene, Latvia prior to World War II was larger than the City Library

As written at the website of the Library of Gulbene, which is the largest city in the area of Lejasciems, where my father, Arvīds Kauliņš, was born, the Kaulins Private Library in Gulbene was larger than the Town Library prior to World War II:

"In 1935, the Gulbene Town Library was located in Town Administration building on Pils Street 2. The stock consisted of 935 volumes. The head of the Library was Vilma Kupča, a member of the Town Council. In this year, the Administration granted 300 lats to support the Library and the reading room (by comparison, 1500 lats were granted to support a doctor). The Gulbene Department of Library of the Latvian Railway Society was situated on Dzelzceļas Street 11 (the former Railwayman's Club building), and contained 1136 volumes in 1935.

The Kauliņš's Private Library, containing 1691 volumes, was located on Brīvības Street 11. The borrowers had to pay 1 or 2 lats as a membership fee.

Friday, April 03, 2009

Where Does the Kaulins Clan Come From? No Kurienes Naca Kaulini und Kaulinu Cilts? : The City of Lejasciems : Lejasciema Pilseta Latvija un Apkartne

Mans tevs, Arvids Kaulins, bija dzimis un uzauga Lejasciema, Latvija, tuvu Gulbenei, teva und vecteva majas. Skolas iela 9. [Es nelietoju seit diakritiskas zimes jo vinas ir musu digitala laikmeta lielako kart liekas.]

My father, Arvids Kaulins, was born on October 1, 1914 (old style) and grew up in Lejasciems (German Aahof, Livland, Livonia), Vidzeme, Latvia, about 20 km northwest of the larger city Gulbene on the map. Lejasciems translated literatlly means "Hamlet in the Dale", being located where the River Tirza, known for its river pearls, meets the River Gauja (the German Livländische Aa, "Livonian Aa"), the longest river in Latvia at 452 kilometers.

Lejasciems is a small village in a county numbering only about 2000 persons. Lejasciems in its day, however, had the right to call itself the smallest city in Latvia in spite of only 500 inhabitants, having been granted city rights in 1929. Lejasciems thus has its own coat of arms. The city rights were revoked without cause in 1939, even though the city was debt-free.

My father was born in Lejasciems in the house of his father (Janis = John) and his father's father (Augusts = August) at Skolas Iela 9 (Skolas Street 9). He was one of nine children, of whom seven reached adulthood. His elder brother was one of two children not to survive infancy or adolescence (diptheria), and he grew up with six sisters as the second youngest in the family.

The house at Skolas Iela 9 had a large property to the back, and also a thatched roof and was well kept and painted. In the Soviet occupation period, thatched roofs were no longer made, so that just like all old houses in Latvia, the thatched roofs, expensive to keep up or replace, were replaced with lesser materials. The original house was large enough to accomodate a family of eleven, but in the Soviet period it was divided in two, and two separate families have lived there ever since, none of them any longer being of the Kaulins clan.

To escape deportation of the intelligensia to Siberia by the Russians, the Kaulinses fled to Germany during WWI, and were scattered across the globe thereafter, with the largest descendant factions having ties in the United States (Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska - surnames Kaulins, Larson and Bratt), Germany (Traben-Trarbach, Göttingen and Nordhorn, surname Kaulins), and Australia (Melbourne, Victoria - surnames Evele, Bruns).

One of my father's sisters fled to England during the war, but reportedy returned to Latvia at some time during the Soviet period. My father's childhood sweetheart, Anja, fled to Venezuela.

My father Arvids ultimately married Valda Antonija Putelis of Daugavpils, Karsava and Ikšķile (Üxküll), near Riga, who herself was born in Karsava, and who he met in Germany in Königstein im Taunus near Frankfurt am Main during the war. Ikskile in Latvija was the center of ancient Livonia and Bishop Meinhard (St. Meinard), according to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) by Henricus Lettus, was its first bishop.

Lejasciema dzima Zenta Maurina, (seit ar attelu) Latvijas slavenaka rakstniece arzemes, it ipasi Vacija.

Zenta Maurina (Latvian bio), Latvia's most famous female author overseas, especially popular in Germany, was born in Lejasciems, where her father was the local medical practitioner. Below is a photograph of Zenta Maurina from Zelta Fonds:

The Lejasciems Culture Historical Heritage and Tradition Centre (Lejasciema kultūrvēsturikā mantojuma un tradīciju centrs], Rīgas iela 18, p/n Lejasciems, Lejasciema pag., Gulbenes raj., LV-4412, ph. +371 64473660) is situated in the building where the novelist and philosopher Zenta Mauriņa (1897 -1978) was born. See the Tourist Portal of Gulbene.

The county board of Lejasciems (Lejasciema pagasta padome) writes that numerous well-known persons were born in Lejasciems:

"Domājot par cilvēkiem, kas dzimuši vai darbojušies Lejasciemā, nedrīkst aizmirst arī komponistu Helmeru Pavasari, 1919.gadā lielinieku nomocīto mācītāju Konstantīnu Ūderu, rakstnieci Annu Saksi, rakstnieku, dzejnieku un sabiedrisko darbinieku Robertu Eidemani, novadpētnieku un pedagogu Zelmāru Lancmani, mikrobiologu Otto Kalniņu, vēsturnieku Jāni Tālivaldi Zemzari, valodnieci Dainu Zemzari, bibliogrāfu Jāni Misiņu un rakstnieku Jāni Kārstenu (Šmitu)."

These persons include e.g. musical composer, conductor and organist Helmers Pavasars (who resided in London after 1954), actor Kārlis Sebris, pastor Konstantins Uders (who served in Great Britain, see the Lutheran Council of Great Brtain), writer Anna Sakse, philosopher Maija Kule, and also the library pioneer Janis Misins.

Janis Misins (no Kraces, Lejasciema tuvuma) dzivoja Lejasciema un sava laika tur uztureja lielako privato Latvijas biblioteku.

As written at the Latvian Academic Library:

"The Misins Library is the oldest and the most complete repository of Latvian literature. Its founder is the distinguished Latvian bibliophile and bibliographer Janis Misins (1862-1945). The Misins Library was founded on 19 September 1885 when J. Misins received permission from the governor of Vidzeme to open a private library in his father’s country house "Kraces" [near Lejasciems]. In fact, J. Misins began to lend books for reading to neighbouring residents several years earlier. An Index of Book Collection in "Kraces" compiled in 1890 has been preserved. It comprises the first 500 volumes of the library. In the book list there are many rare editions which were not suitable for peasants, but made a good contribution to Latvian scholarly library, e. g. G. F. Stender's books Lettische Grammatik and Lettisches Lexikon, K. Valdemars’s and G. Merkel’s articles in German and the like. In 1892 J. Misins moved to Lejasciems with his book collection and opened a bookstore next to the library. In Lejasciems the number of books in the library grew from 500 to 5000 volumes. In 1906 J. Misins moved to Riga with a part of his collection, leaving the rest of the books in "Kraces". J. Misins continued to collect every publication written in Latvian and about Latvia. At that time the library had already grown into a large collection of Latvian books. During World War I a part of the books, packed in boxes, were kept in the cellar of St. George's hospital. From 1919 to 1921 J. Misins kept his book collection in several flats at 25 Skolas Street. However, there was not enough space for all the books. When the independent Republic of Latvia was founded, the number of books printed in Latvia grew. Lack of money did not allow J. Misins to enlarge the library. On 22 December 1924, Riga City Council perused J. Misins’s offer to give the library over to Riga city. On 1 December 1925, an agreement was made, but the library was officially opened only on 2 March 1928. The book collection of 28 000 volumes was handed over to Riga city. J. Misins recommended a well-known man Karlis Egle for the head of the library. The Misins Library became a noteworthy cultural centre. Almost all famous Latvian writers, artists and scientists of that time - Rainis, J. Jaunsudrabins, A. Caks, J. Endzelins, P. Stradins were among the readers of the library. Public figures presented the Misins Library with books, manuscripts and even archives. In 1932 the library was granted the right to receive the legal deposit copy of each publication printed in the country. K. Egle enriched the collection of the library with Latvian books and Latvian periodicals published in the Soviet Union in 1920s-1930s. On 3 April 1941, the Misins Library, containing 65 000 volumes, was placed in charge of the Department of Education of People’s Commissariat. In 1945 the library moved to a new building at 3 Skolas Street. The building was large enough for the collection of 77 000 copies. On 5 June 1946, in accordance with the resolution of the Latvian SSR Council of Ministers the Misins Library was placed in charge of the newly founded Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. In January 1954, in order to co-ordinate and improve the work of the Fundamental Library and the Misins Library, to rationalize work of the staff and resources, both libraries were united without merging their collections; and the Misins Library was officially named J. Misins Department of Latvian Literature of the Fundamental Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Latvian SSR. In 1992 the Misins Library became a library within a library. Today its name is the Misins Library of the Latvian Academic Library. After the World War II the principle of acquisition for the Misins Library collection was the same - to collect everything that has been published in Latvia, all works and their translations by Latvian authors, everything about Latvia and the Latvians. Since the late 1950s the library has acquired Latvian literature published abroad either through international book exchange or as donations. Then few copies were acquired as these publications had to be kept in a special closed department. Special permissions were needed to visit it, therefore donations were few. Since 1987 these collections have been gradually merged into a united collection that is accessible to all readers. Then the library began to receive Latvian exile literature in big shipments organized by the Latvian Cultural Foundation. Lately the Misins Library has had wide co-operation with Latvians living abroad, and publishers of Latvian books, magazines and newspapers abroad. Now the library regularly receives issues of all the biggest Latvian exile periodicals. At present, the Misins Library co-operates with 176 private persons and Latvian organizations abroad. Thanks to support from the local sections of the organization "Daugavas Vanagi" and assistance from different Latvian societies and church congregations, the Misins Library has received books from 10 private libraries from Australia, Sweden, and the USA. The most abundant donation of literature to the Misins Library was from Biruta and Janis Avotins from the USA in 1994. At present, the Misins Library is the most complete repository of Latvian science, learning and national cultural heritage in the world. The holdings contain nearly 1 000 000 items. Thanks to Misins’s tradition to collect ephemera, programs for concerts and social events, exhibition catalogues, posters and post cards can be found in the library. Abundant material on Latvian Song festivals, Days of Songs and activities of Days of Latvian culture in different countries and continents has been collected in short time. Much has been written about the Misins Library and its founder, but the aptest characterization seems to be in the book Zem karoga (Under the Flag) by Edvarts Virza, "What is the Misins Library? It is a nation turned into a book and put on a shelf." [emphasis added]

The region around Lejasciems was already inhabited in the Neolithic period, as evidenced by megalithic stones and stone axes discovered in the area. Bronze artifacts have also been found. As written by the County Board of Lejascimes (Lejasciema pagasta padome):

"Lejasciema vēsture interesanta arī ar to, ka šejienes iedzīvotāju saknes meklējamas ne tikai baltos, bet arī somugru tautās. Šīs apdzīvotās vietas somugru izcelsmes nosaukums – „Alakűla” (latv. „ciems lejā”) – varētu būt tas, no kā radies vietas latviskais nosaukums – Lejasciems.

Jau akmens laikmetā Lejasciema apkārtne bija apdzīvota. Par to liecina arheoloģiskie atradumi, piemēram, akmens cirvji un citas senlietas. Par šejienes senatni vēsta arī pie „Ceļmalnieku” mājām uzietais somugriem raksturīgais ugunskaps. Šī nav vienīgā zināmā apbedījumu vieta. Tāda uzieta arī pie „Aļļiem”, kur atrastas rotaslietas. „Viģubu” senkapos bijušas rotas, cirvji, naži, šķēpi; senkapi atklāti arī Svārbes kreisajā krastā pie „Melderiem”. Savukārt Sinoles „Krācēs”, Gaujas upes kreisajā krastā, šķiet, bijis pilskalns. Tur uziets ap 70 cm dziļš mītņu slānis, kurā atrastas keramikas atliekas, kauli, akmens cirvju fragmenti. Ir bijuši arī vēl citi atradumi, par kuriem ziņas var iegūt Lejasciema pagasta muzejā (tagad –kultūrvēsturisā mantojuma centrā)...

Vietas – vēstures liecinieces Lejasciema apkārtnē
1. Senkapi Sinolē pie Briciem (pēc nostāstiem tur atrastas bronzas rotas un cilvēku kauli).
2. Sinolē uz Grimnaužu Klaugas kalna ap 1912.gadu atrasts abos galos asināts, rupji apstrādāts akmens cirvis, kas nodots skolotājam Z.
3. Pie Majaniem Lejasciemā bijis akmens, kam vidū liels, cilvēku darināts iedobums. Domājams, ka tas bijis upuru akmens.
4. Apbedījumu vieta Lejasciema Ceļmalniekos. Arot zemi, uzieti akmeņi, sakrauti cieši viens pie otra iegarenā formā kā šķirsts. Starp akmeņiem
bijuši apdeguši cilvēku kauli.
5. Mālmuižā pie Kļaviņu mājām, kultivējot tīrumu, 1962.gadā atrasts senlaiku platasmens cirvis, kādi lietoti ap 13. – 15.gs. karagājienos.
6. Senkapi pie Melderiem Svārbes upītes kreisajā krastā, kur atrastas apbedījumu pēdas un bronzas saktas.
7. Senkapi Lejasciemā pie Sudalas upes ietekas Tirzā, kur stāvajā krastā bijuši kapakmeņi."

Friday, February 13, 2009

Kaulins (Kauliņš) is a Latvian Surname comparable to English Collins and the historical name Ceawlin, King of the West Saxons

The surname Kaulins (Kauliņš) in Latvia probably has about the same distribution within the Latvian population as the comparable surname Collins in the United Kingdom and Ireland, and perhaps the United States. The Wikipedia writes at Collins (surname):
"The surname Collins has a variety of likely origins in Britain and Ireland:

1. Anglo-Saxon: A patronymic surname based on the name Colin, an English diminutive form of Nicholas. In England, Collins usually signified "son of Colin."
2. Irish: "cuilein" = darling, a term of endearment applied to young animals.
3. Irish: The surname O' Coileáin, meaning "from the whelp or young animal".
4. Welsh: Collen = hazel, hazel grove.

Alternative spellings or related surnames include Collin, Colling, Coling, Collings, Colings, Collis, Coliss, Collen, and Collens.

The earliest documented evidence of the name in England dates back as far as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries where several instances have been recorded. One Colinus de Andresia appears in the pipe rolls of Berkshire in 1191, while a Colinus is mentioned in Hartopp's Register of the Freeman of Leicester recorded in 1196. The personal name Colin from which the surname derives has an even older history; Ceawlin, the king of the West Saxons, Caelin, a brother of St Chad, an the early Welsh saint, Kollen, all have names related to Colin. In Ireland, Collins may be regarded as a genuinely indigenous Irish name; in fact, it is one the most numerous surnames, ranked number 30." [emphasis added]
If we go to ceantar.org, we find An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language which can be searched to include four specific sources:
An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (Scottish Gaelic).
The School Gaelic Dictionary (Scottish Gaelic).
Fockleyr Gaelg - Baarle (Manx Gaelic).
Gramadach Lexicon. (Irish Gaelic)"
There we find the much more likely roots of the name:
"a club, bludgeon, Irish, Early Irish cuaille, *kaullio-; Greek @Gkaulós, stalk; Latin caulis, stalk; Lithuanian káulas, a bone (Stokes)...." (MacBain's - Scottisch Gaelic)

"a smart stroke; also coilleag" (Kelly's - Manx Gaelaic)

"wise, sover, Irish céillidhe; from ciall"

"sense, understanding, Irish, Old Irish ciall, Welsh pwyll, Cornish pull, Breton poell, *qeislâ: Indo-European qei, observe, see, shine; Greek @Gpinutós, wise; Sanskrit cetati, perceive, cittam, thought, cino@-ti, discover; further German heiter, clear"
Those Gaelic terms and their meanings correspond to the presumed etymological origin of the surname Kaulins as we have posted on this blog in previous postings. The origin of the English-language Collins as a surname may historically in some cases thus also be the same as Kaulins, and is rooted in the basic concept of "bone, bones" (Latvian kaul-), from which various derivative meanings resulted over the millennia, i.e. terms for the use of animal bones as clubs, or "old bones" which came to be used in the meaning "elders" and thus "wise men".

Since the Baltic peoples also have ancient bagpipes, as perfected in the modern era in Scotland, these language connections must be very ancient. Interesting is also the case of the name Ceawlin.

Ceawlin was the king of the West Saxons whose grandfather, according to the Anglo Saxon Chronicle, invaded Britain from the Continent and he is one of the early royal line of the present British Monarchy.

The Anglo Saxon Chronicle (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17, Part 1: A.D. 1 - 748. It was originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great, approximately A.D. 890, and subsequently maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the middle of the 12th Century. The original language is Anglo-Saxon (Old English), but later entries are essentially Middle English in tone. Translation by Rev. James Ingram (London, 1823), with additional readings from the translation of Dr. J.A. Giles (London, 1847). The text of this edition is based on that published as "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" (Everyman Press, London, 1912). This edition is in the PUBLIC DOMAIN in the United States. This electronic edition was edited, proofed, and prepared by Douglas B. Killings (DeTroyes@AOL.COM), July 1996), who writes as follows:
"A.D. 495. This year came two leaders into Britain, Cerdic and Cynric his son, with five ships, at a place that is called Cerdic's-ore. And they fought with the Welsh the same day. Then he died, and his son Cynric succeeded to the government, and held
it six and twenty winters. Then he died; and Ceawlin, his son, succeeded, who reigned seventeen years. Then he died; and Ceol succeeded to the government, and reigned five years. When he died, Ceolwulf, his brother, succeeded, and reigned seventeen years. Their kin goeth to Cerdic. Then succeeded Cynebils, Ceolwulf's brother's son, to the kingdom; and reigned one and thirty winters. And he first of West-Saxon kings received baptism. Then succeeded Cenwall, who was the son of Cynegils, and reigned one and thirty winters. Then held Sexburga, his queen, the government one year after him. Then succeeded Escwine to the kingdom, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it two years. Then succeeded Centwine, the son of Cynegils, to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and reigned nine years. Then succeeded Ceadwall to the government, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and held it three years. Then succeeded Ina to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned thirty-seven winters. Then succeeded Ethelheard, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned sixteen years. Then succeeded Cuthred, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned sixteen winters. Then succeeded Sigebriht, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one year. Then succeeded Cynwulf, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned one and thirty winters. Then succeeded Brihtric, whose kin goeth to Cerdic, and reigned sixteen years. Then succeeded Egbert to the kingdom, and held it seven and thirty winters, and seven months. Then succeeded Ethelwulf, his son, and reigned eighteen years and a half. Ethelwulf was the son of Egbert, Egbert of Ealmund, Ealmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild, Ingild of Cenred (Ina of Cenred, Cuthburga of Cenred, and Cwenburga of Cenred), Cenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cuthwulf, Cuthwulf of Cuthwine, Cuthwine of Celm, Celm of Cynric, Cynric of Creoda, Creoda of Cerdic. Then succeeded Ethelbald, the son of Ethelwulf, to the kingdom, and held it five years. Then succeeded Ethelbert, his brother, and reigned five years. Then succeeded Ethelred, his brother, to the kingdom, and held it five years. Then succeeded Alfred, their brother, to the government. And then had elapsed of his age three and twenty winters, and three hundred and ninety-six winters from the time when his kindred first gained the land of Wessex from the Welsh. And he held the kingdom a year and a half less than thirty winters. Then succeeded Edward, the son of Alfred, and reigned twenty-four winters. When he died, then succeeded Athelstan, his son, and reigned fourteen years and seven weeks and three days. Then succeeded Edmund, his brother, and reigned six years and a half, wanting two nights. Then succeeded Edred, his brother, and reigned nine years and six weeks. Then succeeded Edwy, the son of Edmund, and reigned three years and thirty-six weeks, wanting two days. When he died, then succeeded Edgar, his brother, and reigned sixteen years and eight weeks and two nights. When he died, then succeeded Edward, the son of Edgar, and reigned --"
. . .
"((A.D. 565. This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots among the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a monastery in the island of Hii.))

A.D. 568. This year Ceawlin, and Cutha the brother of Ceawlin,
fought with Ethelbert, and pursued him into Kent. And they slew two aldermen at Wimbledon, Oslake and Cnebba.

A.D. 571. This year Cuthulf fought with the Britons at Bedford,
and took four towns, Lenbury, Aylesbury, Benson, and Ensham. And this same year he died.

A.D. 577. This year Cuthwin and Ceawlin fought with the Britons,
and slew three kings, Commail, and Condida, and Farinmail, on the spot that is called Derham, and took from them three cities, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath.

A.D. 583. This year Mauricius succeeded to the empire of the

A.D. 584. This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought with the Britons on
the spot that is called Fretherne. There Cutha was slain. And Ceawlin took many towns, as well as immense booty and wealth. He then retreated to his own people.

A.D. 588. This year died King Ella; and Ethelric reigned after
him five years.

A.D. 591. This year there was a great slaughter of Britons at
Wanborough; Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom, and Ceolric reigned six years.

A.D. 592. This year Gregory succeeded to the papacy at Rome.

A.D. 593. This year died Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and Cryda; and
Ethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbrians. He was the son of Ethelric; Ethelric of Ida.

A.D. 596. This year Pope Gregory sent Augustine to Britain with
very many monks, to preach the word of God to the English people.

A.D. 597. This year began Ceolwulf to reign over the West-
Saxons; and he constantly fought and conquered, either with the Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the Scots. He was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar, Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, and Balday of Woden. This year came Augustine and his companions to England. (17)"
. . .
The Latvian pronunciation of Kauliņš is "Cowlinsh". The derived English pronunciation of Kaulins is "Collins" because diacritical marks have been dispensed with by Kaulins families living outside of Latvia. In Germany, the surname Kaulins is pronounced more in the direction of "Call-ins" (.e. like the word "call") or phonetically as "Cowlins". There is also a German surname Kollins, while the Champagne House Médot in France produces a rare champagne named Brut Clos des Chaulins.

WineTourismFrance.com writes:
"A ‘clos’ is a vineyard surrounded by walls, which cannot be crossed by a cavalier and his mount. A ‘clos’ Champagne is only made from grapes from that vineyard. Champagne has five of them: Clos des Goisses in Mareuil-sur-Aÿ (Champagne Philiponnat), Clos du Moulin (Champagne Cattier) in Chigny-les-Roses, Clos du Mesnil (Champagne Krug in Le Mesnil), Clos Saint-Jacques and Clos des Chaudes Terres (Bollinger in Ay)." [emphasis added]
And now we know the sixth Clos. It is even offered for sale online at FineWineGifts.co.uk. We still have the remant of a bottle in our own wine cellar:


Cross-posted to LawPundit.